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This a successful blind 10 wins , though a team that bids blind and then comes out for a non-blind bid of 10 scores only A blind bid fails if the team takes fewer trick than they bid, and in this case there is no double - they lose just 10 points per trick bid for a blind bid of 6 to 9, or for a failed blind The first hand of a new game is normally played without any bidding.
The teams just play to win as many tricks as possible and score 10 points per trick. If a team is set twice in succession "shot back to back" , they lose the whole game , irrespective of the scores.
If both teams are set on two consecutive deals, the team with the higher score wins. Redd reports that in some groups, a team survives two consecutive sets but loses the whole game if they are set three times in succession.
If the game is not ended by a Boston or a team losing twice in a row, the first team to score or more points, or the team with the higher score if both achieve this on the same deal, wins the game.
If there is a tie at or more points, further deals must be played until the tie is broken. Here are some further variants, mostly contributed by Theodore Hwa.
In some versions of Spades, some or all of the four twos are elevated to the top of the spade suit, are ranked in some specified order, and are considered to be spades.
The rest of the cards rank as in normal. Spades can also be played with a 54 card pack - the standard pack of 52 plus 2 distinguishable jokers.
In this case the two jokers are elevated to be the top two cards of the spade suit, with a particular order of the jokers specified.
If jokers are used and no cards are eliminated, then there will be two cards left over at the end of the deal, and these are given to the dealer.
Having looked at all 15 cards, the dealer discards any two cards face down. Some play that the two extra cards are given to the holder of the two of clubs, rather than the dealer.
Some play that the discard takes place after the bidding. Jeffrey Jacobs reports a variant "Widow Spades" which uses a pack with two jokers, but in this case the two cards remaining at the end of the deal are set aside unseen - no one may look at them until after the play.
This adds an element of uncertainty, since sometimes a high trump is unexpectedly out of play. Michael Mitchell reports a variation with 54 cards in which the two cards remaining after the deal are taken by the team that bids the greater number of tricks.
They may agree to take one card each, or for one player to take both cards. If the teams bid equal numbers of tricks - for example six each - then each team gets one of the remaining cards - they decide between themselves which member of each partnership should take it.
In either card, the player s who have taken the extra cards discard unwanted cards face down to bring their hands back to 13 cards before the play begins.
Some play that before the bidding, each player passes three cards face down to partner. The cards are passed simultaneously - players must decide what to pass before knowing what cards they will receive.
Some play that instead of the players bidding strictly in turn, each partnership agrees on a bid, through a process of discussion. First the non-dealer's side agrees on a bid.
Each partner on that side communicates the amount of tricks they expect to take, based on their cards. A certain amount of unspecified bantering about "halves" and "maybes" is permitted, but not specific information about cards held.
For example you are allowed to say "I know I can take 4 tricks, I might be able to take 6"; you are not allowed to say "I have a couple of high hearts and a singleton in clubs".
The agreed upon bid is then written down. The other side then agrees on a bid in the same manner. Some play that each team must bid a minimum of 4 tricks.
If a player bids Nil, that player's partner must bid at least 4. Some play that after each partnership has agreed its initial bid, each side, beginning with the side that made the first bid, is then given the opportunity to increase its bid.
Some play that the bids of the two sides must not add up to exactly 13 tricks. This makes it impossible for both teams to win their bid exactly.
The type of bidding described in the main account of Spades above is known as "round the table" bidding. In this type of bidding table talk is usually not permitted.
A player may only state a number. Some play that the dealer, rather than the player to dealer's left begins. There is also variation as to whether a bid of "zero" must necessarily be construed as bid of nil.
In round-the-table bidding, some people allow a second round of bidding, in which each side may increase its bid. In this second round, the bidding proceeds exactly as in partnership bidding, beginning with the same side as the player who began the round-the-clock bidding sequence.
Some play that in the first deal of a spades game there is no bidding. The cards are played in the usual way and each team scores 10 points for each trick taken.
This does not seem to be a very good rule - it reduces the scope for skill without any compensating advantage - but Jeffrey Jacobs reports that some people like to play this way.
There is great variety in the special bids or actions a player may be allowed to make during his turn to bid. Some of the possibilities are listed below.
Some play that the dealer leads first, rather than the player to dealer's left, and may lead any card except a spade. On the first trick, some require that everyone must play their lowest club.
A player who has no clubs must discard a diamond or a heart. No spades may be played to the trick. In this variation, on this first trick it does not matter much in what order the four players play their cards - but if you want to be fussy then the holder of the 2 of clubs should lead, and the others play in clockwise order.
The trick is won by the highest club played. In the first trick, some allow a player who has no clubs to play a spade on the trick. In this case the trick is won by the highest spade if a spade is played.
As the order of play to the trick may now be important if you are going to play a spade you would rather wait to see if someone else plays a higher spade first , the holder of the two of clubs should lead to the first trick or the holder of the lowest club in play if you are playing with jokers and the two of clubs was discarded.
Tricks in excess of the contract overtricks or sandbags may be worth minus 1 point each rather than plus 1. In this case the penalty for accumulating 10 overtricks does not apply.
Some players use the units digit of the score to count sandbags, but do not regard it as being part of the score - so sandbags are in effect worth nothing until you have 10 of them, when they cost you In this variation if your score was and you bid 7 tricks and took 9 your score would become not Some people play that there is a special card which cancels one sandbag on that hand for the side that takes it in their tricks.
If the side which wins the special card makes no overtricks, or loses their bid, the special card has no effect.
The special card may be either a fixed card - for example the three of spades - or may be determined afresh by cutting a card before each deal.
Some play that if a team takes at least twice as many tricks as they bid they lose their bid for example if they bid 4 and win 8 or more tricks they score Some play that the penalty for taking fewer tricks than were bid is 10 points for each trick by which the team falls short of the bid, rather than 10 times the bid.
Some play that if a side's cumulative score is minus or worse, that side loses the game and of course the other side wins.
Some players set the target for winning the game at points rather than Others play with a target of only Playing with aces: Michael Mitchell reports a variation in which a partnership scores a point bonus for holding all four aces and bringing them all home in tricks, provided that they announce this before the play.
A player who holds all four aces can simply announce it. A player with three aces can ask partner: "can we go aces? Holding only two aces the player asks instead: "is it possible to go aces?
These announcements may be made at any time before the start of play - before, during or after the bidding. There is no penalty for a team that announces four aces but fails to win them all.
This variant is normally played without nil bids, and with both jokers and the two of spades ranking as highest trumps above the ace of spades, so that the spade ace is not a certain trick.
In rec. Bids are for the number of tricks the individual player will make, and in the play, it is compulsory to beat the highest card so far played to the trick if you can; this includes playing a spade if you have no card of the suit led.
This is played between three teams of two, partners sitting opposite so there are two opponents from different teams separating you from your partner in each direction.
A card deck is used, consisting of two standard 52 card decks mixed together with two low cards removed. Some groups remove both twos of diamonds, others remove both twos of clubs.
The bidding and scoring are the same as in the 4 player game, and similar variations are possible. In the play, if two identical cards are played to the same trick, the second beats the first.
One standard 52 card pack is used. Deal 17 cards to each player. The remaining card is tossed out of play for that particular game. Variation: play with a 54 card pack including big and little jokers as the top two trumps.
Deal 18 cards to each player. Each player, starting with the player to dealer's left, names a number called a bet. Each player's object is to win that number of tricks.
Some people play that the total of the three bets cannot be 17 tricks - so that not everyone can make their bet exactly.
The player who has the 2 of clubs must lead it to the first trick. In the rare occasion that the 2 of clubs is out of play, the player with the 3 of clubs must lead it.
The other two players must play a club not necessarily their lowest. A player who has no club may either:. The player who wins a trick leads the next.
The other two players must play a card of the suit led, or if either player has none of that suit, take with a spade or refuse with a non-spade.
If neither of the other players has a card of the suit led and both play a spade then the higher spade wins.
A player may not lead a spade until a spade has been used to take another trick led by a non spade. The exception is when a player has nothing left in hand but spades.
Remember each player's bet! If you win as many or more tricks than you bet, you gain 10 points for each trick bet.
If you win fewer tricks than you bet, you lose 10 times the amount of tricks you bet losing like this is usually referred to as a cut.
Sandbags are overtricks: If you take too many tricks, for every extra trick over what you bet, the amount you win for the contract is reduced by 10 points.
For example, if you bet 4 tricks and take 5, you win only 30 instead of 40; if you take 7 tricks having bet 3 you lose 10 points overall 30 minus Variation : Some players count sandbags.
Instead of losing 10 points from your contract score for each sandbag, when you accumulate 10 sandbags over several deals , you drop points.
This is why sometimes you will refuse a trick, since taking it will give you too many tricks, and you lose points. The game is played to a set number, usually , , , or some other round number.
When one or more pass that number, the player with the highest score wins. Szu Kay Wong recommends playing with the following bonus scores:.
In a three-player game, the dealer will be the third seat. In a four-player game the third seat will be to the right of the dealer.
Bidding starts by the player in second seat making a call to the player in first seat on which the latter can hold or pass.
If the first seat player holds, the second seat player can make a higher call or pass himself. This continues until either of the two players passes.
The player in third seat is then allowed to continue making calls to the player who has not yet passed. Bidding ends as soon as at least two players have passed.
It is also possible for all three players to pass. The player who continues in this mnemonic is either the dealer in a three-player game or the player in third seat.
The mnemonic is commonly used among casual players. Example: Anna, Bernard and Clara are playing, and seated in that order around the table.
Anna deals the cards. Clara makes the first call to Bernard, who passes right away. Anna then makes two more calls to Clara, who accepts both bids.
Anna then passes as well. The bidding ends, with Clara being the declarer for this round. Except for "pass", only the possible game values are legal calls.
Therefore, the lowest possible call is 18, which is the lowest possible game value in Skat. Players are free to skip intermediate values, although it is common to always pick the lowest available call while bidding.
The sequence of possible double digit game values, beginning with 18 is 18—20—22—23—24—27—30—33—35—36—40—44—45—46—48—50—54—55—59— triple digit bids are possible albeit rare in a competitive auction.
Also, numbers are frequently abbreviated by only calling the lower digit of a value not divisible by 10 e. As the German words for "null" and "zero" are identical, this yields the rather unintuitive sequence 18—20—2—0—4—7—30 and so on.
If all players pass, the hand is not played and the next dealer shuffles and deals. A dealer never deals twice in a row. It is common in informal play to play a variant of Skat called Ramsch junk, rummage instead of skipping the hand and dealing for the next one.
This is not part of the sanctioned rules, however. In a pass-out game, the player in first seat will be the last one to pass. If that player intends to become declarer, however, he has to make a call of at least 18 picking up the Skat in that situation implies the call.
Players Anna, Bernard and Clara are seated in that order, clockwise; Anna is the dealer. The auction proceeds as follows:. The winner of the auction becomes declarer.
He will play against the other two players. Before the hand is played, declarer either. After putting two cards back into the Skat , declarer then either declares a suit game by announcing a trump suit, declares a grand game or a null game.
If Hand has been declared, the player may make additional announcements such as Schneider , Schwarz and Ouvert. A common variant in non-sanctioned play allows the defenders to announce " Kontra " just before the first trick is played, if they have made or held at least one call.
In this case, the stakes will be doubled for the hand. In a less common further variation this process can be repeated twice more by announcing " Supra " and " Resupra " or more colloquially, " Bock " [ roe buck] and " Hirsch " [red deer] , or the like, which are colloquial augments of " Reh " roe deer.
The player in the first seat sitting to the left of the dealer leads to the first trick. The other two follow in clockwise direction.
Every player plays one card to the trick, which is in the middle of the table. The winner of a trick stacks the cards face down in front of him and leads to the next trick, which is again played clockwise.
Completed tricks are kept face down in front of the players who won them, until all the cards have been played.
Examining completed tricks except for the last one is not allowed. The tricks of the two players who are playing together are put together, either during or after play.
If a player cannot follow suit, he may play any card including a trump card. Trumps, including all four jacks, count as a single suit.
If a trump is led, every player must also play trump, if he has any. If there are trump cards in the trick, the highest trump in it wins the trick.
If there are no trumps in it, the highest card of the suit led wins the trick. The non-trump suit cards rank in order AK-Q In the grand game, only the four jacks are trumps in the suit order given above for a regular suit game.
All other ranks are the same as in the regular suit game 10 is ranked just below the ace. There are thus five "suits" in the grand game if a jack is led to a trick, the other two players must play jacks too, if they have them.
The goal of a null game is for declarer not to take any tricks. If declarer takes a trick in a null game, he immediately loses and the game is scored right away.
Declarer may, unilaterally, concede a loss while he is holding at least nine cards i. Afterwards approval of at least one defender is required.
Defenders may concede at any time, but may be requested by declarer to complete the play e. Claiming of remaining tricks is possible as well, but for a defender only if she would be able to take the remaining tricks herself.
After the last trick has been played, the game is scored. Winning conditions for null game are different from suit and grand games.
To win a suit or grand game, declarer needs at least 61 card points in his tricks. If declarer announced Schneider , he needs at least 90 card points in order to win.
The two cards in the Skat count towards declarer's tricks. If declarer announced Schwarz , he must take all ten tricks in order to win.
The highest-ranking cards for taking the tricks the jacks are not the highest scoring cards. The aces and 10s combined make up almost three quarters of the total points; taking as many as possible of them is thus imperative for winning.
On the other hand, taking 7s, 8s and 9s the Luschen or blanks doesn't help or hurt at all, unless Schwarz was declared.
To win a null game, declarer must not take a single trick. There are no card points in a null game. Even with the majority in card points, declarer may still lose if the game value is lower than the value he bid during the auction.
This is called overbidding. An overbid hand is automatically lost, leading to a negative score for declarer.
An overbid hand is scored by determining the lowest possible game value that is a multiple of the base value of declarer's suit or 24 in case of a grand which is at least as high as declarer's bid.
This value is then doubled and subtracted from declarer's score negative score. Unless they manage to play at least Schneider raising the game value to 36 , or make a game other than clubs with a game value of at least 30, the game will be lost.
They can try to minimize their loss by declaring a game in Hearts instead of Clubs base value 10 instead of The score is always assigned to the declarer positive or negative in the classical scoring system.
The score to be awarded is the actual game value. How high the player bid during the auction is immaterial, as long as the game value is at least as high as declarer's bid see Overbid Hands above.
Note that often the score will be higher than the auction value, because players typically do not bid as high as their hand would allow.
For a won game, that score is added to declarer's tally. For a lost game, the score is doubled and subtracted from declarer's tally negative score.
Until , lost Hand games did not count double, but this rule was dropped in that year. The reason was that in tournament play nearly all games played were Hand games.
This increased the game level by one, but did not penalize as much as a normal game would have if lost. In league games, 50 points get added for each game that is won by the declarer and 40 points each get added to the tally of the defending team shall they win to lower the chance factor and to stress the skill factor.
In that situation, it becomes far more important for each player to bid his hand as high as possible.
Example 1: Declarer bids 20 and declares a grand game. He then wins with 78 points in tricks. These are awarded to the declarer. Example 2: Declarer bids 30 and declares a Null Ouvert game.
She, however, is forced to take the ninth trick, losing the game. Ramsch "junk" is not part of sanctioned Skat rules, but is widely practiced in hobbyist rounds, and is the variant most often suggested to be officially sanctioned.
It is played if all three players pass in the bidding. There is no declarer in Ramsch ; every player plays for himself, and the goal is to achieve as low a score as possible.
The idea behind Ramsch is to punish players who underbid their hands. To make Ramsch more interesting, an additional rule is often played that adds a second winning condition: the Ramsch is also won by a player if that player manages to take all tricks German : Durchmarsch i.
At first, this seems to be not too difficult, since the other players will initially try to take as few tricks as possible and to get rid of their high-ranking cards.
Once they get suspicious, however, they may thwart the effort simply by taking one trick from the player trying for the Durchmarsch. Suit ranks in Ramsch are the same as in the Grand game, with only the four Jacks being trumps.
Hobby players often add the following rule: 10s are lower in trick taking power than Queens and Kings, but still count as ten points.
Sometimes, they only count one point. There are a couple of variants to the rules concerning 10s, so this should be sorted out before starting the game.
Often, the players are allowed to check and exchange cards with the skat, or decline to do so and pass the skat on to the next player, doubling the score known as Schieberamsch.
Jacks are not allowed to be passed on in this variation. The two cards in the Skat are usually added to the tricks of the player who takes the last trick.
After all ten tricks are played, the player with the highest number of card points or alternatively, every player has their card points amount deducted from their score as negative game points.
If one player takes no tricks at all Jungfrau , English: virgin , the points of the losing hand are doubled. Some players also give a fixed value of 15 negative points to the loser and if there are two "virgins", Another variation used in smaller tournaments is the Gewinner-Ramsch winner-rubbish.
If none of the players bid a Ramsch is played. Unlike the original negative game the winner is who achieves the lowest score and is awarded 23 points, the score of a won Null.
Additionally they are awarded the won game. The skat is given to the player with the highest score. If two players achieve the same lowest score they will both be awarded the 23 points and the won game.
While not very widely spread this variation is a nice addition as it rewards the player who most rightfully did not bid. It is possible to play a modified version of the game with only two players.
A popular two-player variant is called Strohmann strawman , in which the dummy hand is played by the player who loses bidding.
After the game has been declared, the third hand is flipped and can be seen by the other players. Thus, it is possible to predict what hand the opponent has and play much more strategically.